Classroom Presentation (in order to view the presentation and listen to the audio lectures simultaneously, right click the .pdf attachment [or, if using a Mac, control + click the attachment], open the attachment in a separate window, and play the appropriate audio presentation below):

Audio Presentations (open the classroom presentation above in a separate window, and select the appropriate audio presentation by hitting the play button):

- Unit 6, Lesson 1 - The Bourbon Redeemers
- Unit 6, Lesson 2 - Henry Grady and the International Cotton Expositions
- Unit 6, Lesson 3 - The Populists, Tom Watson, & Rebecca Latimer Felton
- Unit 6, Lesson 4 - The 1906 Atlanta Riot
- Unit 6, Lesson 5 - The Leo Frank Case & the County Unit System
- Unit 6, Lesson 7 - Segregation & Disenfranchisment
- Unit 6, Lesson 8 - Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. DuBois
- Unit 6, Lesson 9 - John and Lugenia Burns Hope & Alonzo Herndon

Supplementary Resources (a number of items have been provided below - pictures, video clips, downloadable attachments, etc. - to help you further investigate the themes and lessons encountered in this unit; note that, due to certain Internet restrictions, not all video clips may be accessible while at school):

-- THE NEW SOUTH MOVEMENT (1877 - 1918) --

Cast of Characters

Joseph E. Brown - Member of the Bourbon Triumvirate who switched political parties on multiple occasions (depending on which party was in power), served in all three branches of government (as Governor, Chief Justice of GA's Supreme Court, and U.S. Senator), and used his enormous influence to promote a "New South" built on business and industry.
Alfred H. Colquitt - Member of the Bourbon Triumvirate who became wealthy in the railroad and textile industry, served as U.S. Senator, and used his tremendous influence to promote business and industry (though he was accused of corruption).
John B. Gordon - Member of the Bourbon Triumvirate who had distinguished himself as a Confederate General during the Civil War and as leader of GA's KKK during the Reconstruction; he would use his tremendous fame and influence to win election to GA's Governor's office and to the U.S. Senate, but he was accused of being motivated by personal gain.
Henry Grady - Known as "the Voice of the New South," Grady used his position as editor of "The Atlanta Constitution" to promote the agenda of the Bourbon Redeemers.
Medallion commemorating the 1881 Atlanta International Cotton Exposition (ICE)
Medallion (front) commemorating the 1895 Atlanta International Cotton Exposition (ICE)
Medallion (back) commemorating the 1895 Atlanta International Cotton Exposition (ICE)

-- POPULISM (1880s-1890s) --

Cast of Characters

The Farmers' Alliance and the People's (Populist) Part both resisted the New South emphasis on business and industry...
Tom Watson - Leader of Georgia's Populist Party, he shocked the Democratic establishment by winning election to the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1890s; in Congress, Watson ensure the adoption of Rural Free Delivery (RFD); though he eventually joined the Democratic Party, he continued to fight for farmer's rights in the House of Rep. and, later, in the U.S. Senate.
Rebecca Latimer Felton - The first female U.S. Senator in American history (even if only for 24 hours)...


Cast of Characters

Sensationalized headlines (like these), and a racially-charged gubernatorial campaign, helped to provoke the 1906 Atlanta Race Riots.
Leo Frank - A Jewish manager of an Atlanta-based pencil company, Frank would become embroiled in an explosive murder trial that would expose deep-seated anti-semitism in the South.
Mary Phagan - The young factory worker whose brutal murder led to the infamous trial of Leo Frank.
Leo Frank sits in court during his infamous trial.
Leo Frank is lynched by a mob called "The Knights of Mary Phagan."
Jim Crow laws were passed to discriminate against African-Americans, making it legal to segregate schools, hotels, restaurants, facilities, etc.
Homer Plessy - Plessy would challenge Jim Crow laws in Louisiana, only to have his challenge defeated by the Supreme Court in the landmark "Plessy vs. Ferguson" case which ruled that segregation was legal as long as the principle of "separate but equal" were observed.
Disenfranchisement - Poll taxes were used to keep poor African-Americans from voting.
Disenfranchisement - Literacy tests were used to keep illiterate African-Americans from voting.
Disenfranchisement - Intimidation was used to keep African-Americans from voting.
The Ku Klux Klan (here shown performing a cross "lighting" ceremony) continued to use terrorism, violence, and murder to keep African-Americans from becoming equal members of society.


Cast of Characters

Booker T. Washington - Washington urged African-Americans not to fight for civil rights, but to accept social segregation and earn equality through hard work and vocational education; his position on civil rights was articulated in a speech known as "The Atlanta Compromise."
W.E.B. Du Bois - Washington's rival, Du Bois urged African-Americans to fight vigorously against discrimination.
Founded by Du Bois and colleagues in 1909, the NAACP was an organization created to challenge discrimination in the court system.
John Hope - African-American leader in the field of education, he founded, at Atlanta University (later Clark Atlanta University), the first U.S. college specializing in graduate education for African-Americans.
Morehouse College is the cradle of the Civil Rights Movement, with ties to John Hope, Benjamin Mays, Martin Luther King, Jr., and others...
Clark Atlanta University (originally Atlanta University) was the sight of the first college specializing in graduate studies for African-Americans.
Lugenia Burns Hope - African-American leader in the field of social activism and the wife of John Hope, Lugenia founded "Neighborhood Union" as an organization for helping provide health care, job training, and boys and girls clubs for the poor in Atlanta.
Alonzo Herndon - Black leader in the field of business and a true "rags to riches" story, Herndon was born a slave, later founded Atlanta Life Insurance, and died the wealthiest African-American in Atlanta.
The home office of Atlanta Life Insurance Co.


A great video on Jim Crow laws and Black Codes made by one teacher for an American Studies class:

A pretty good biography of Booker T. Washington:

An actual recording of Booker T. Washington's 1904 "Atlanta Compromise" Speech:

Short video on "Plessy v. Ferguson":

Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. Du Bois

Enrichment Activities (using the "Analyzing a Primary Source" worksheet, download and analyze one of the attached primary source documents below):


- Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise Speech (1904)