Classroom Presentation (in order to view the presentation and listen to the audio lectures simultaneously, right click the .pdf attachment [or, if using a Mac, control + click the attachment], open the attachment in a separate window, and play the appropriate audio presentation below):

Audio Presentations (open the classroom presentation above in a separate window, and select the appropriate audio presentation by hitting the play button):

- Unit 9, Lesson 1 - Morehouse College, Benjamin Mays, MLK, Jr., and the SCLC
- Unit 9, Lesson 2 - The Three Governors Controversy & Brown v. Board of Education
- Unit 9, Lesson 3 - SNCC, the Sibley Commission, and the Integration of UGA
- Unit 9, Lesson 4 - The Albany Movement and the March on Washington
- Unit 9, Lesson 5 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Lester Maddox, and Maynard Jackson
- Unit 9, Lesson 6 - Andrew Young

Supplementary Resources (a number of items have been provided below - pictures, video clips, downloadable attachments, etc. - to help you further investigate the themes and lessons encountered in this unit; note that, due to certain Internet restrictions, not all video clips may be accessible while at school):

-- The Early Civil Rights Movement (1955-1960) --

Cast of Characters

Rev. Benjamin Mays - President of Morehouse College who became the father of the Civil Rights Movement due to, among other things, his devotion to the nonviolent teachings of Gandhi and to his influence over his students, particularly Martin Luther King, Jr.
Morehouse College (Atlanta, GA) - The "cradle" of the Civil Rights Movement, Morehouse produced influential Civil Rights leaders for decades, including Martin Luther King, Jr.
Morehouse College (Atlanta, GA) - Official seal
Gandhi's influence on Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement - NONVIOLENT PROTEST!!!
Martin Luther King, Jr. - An Atlanta native, King became the unquestioned leader of the Modern Civil Rights Movement.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference - MLK, Jr.'s organization for mobilizing Christian support for the efforts of the Civil Rights Movement.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 - The actions of Rosa Parks would draw the attention of Martin Luther King, Jr., and would serve as the symbolic beginning of the Modern Civil Rights movement.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 - Using financial leverage to win important concessions for African-Americans, the bus boycott was a major Civil Rights victory and it brought national prominence to Martin Luther King, Jr. as the leader of the new movement.
Herman Talmadge - In 1946, Herman ran as a write-in candidate (on the assumption that Eugene Talmadge, who won the election, was approaching death); on the basis of Eugene Talmadge's death, Herman claimed victory in the 1946 election ("a vote for one Talmadge is a vote for any Talmadge")...
M.E. Thompson - Because he was the Lieutenant Gov. following the death of Governor-elect Eugene Talmadge, Thompson declared himself the constitutionally-determined Governor; the Georgia Supreme Court agreed with Thompson and declared him to be the Governor in the wake of the 1946 "Three Governors Controversy"
Brown vs. Board of Education - In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down the landmark decision overturning Plessy v. Ferguson and ruling school segregation to be unconstitutional.
The 14th Amendment - Guaranteeing the "equal protection" of all citizens, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the Democratic White Primary and school segregation unconstitutional on the basis of the 14th Amendment.
Gov. Marvin Griffen - In response to the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision, Marvin Griffen urged "massive resistance" from Georgians and others throughout the Deep South, even threatening to close down Georgia's public schools rather than to comply.
The pre-1956 state flag of Georgia...
The 1956 state flag - In response and opposition to the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision, the GA General Assembly modified the state flag, adding the Confederate battle flag as a symbol of resistance to desegregation.

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - Founded by Ella Baker in North Carolina and led, in Georgia, by Julian Bond, SNCC sought to mobilize white and African-American students in support of the Civil Rights Movement.
Julian Bond - Leader of the Georgia wing of SNCC.
Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes - The first African-American students admitted to the University of Georgia (in January 1961).
Charlayne Hunter walking to class after registering as a UGA student in January 1961.
The March on Washington (1963) - MLK, Jr. delivers the famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

- The MLK, Jr. "I Have a Dream" Speech (August 28,1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson - 36th President of the United States who considered the 1964 Civil Rights Act to be his greatest presidential accomplishment; generally considered to be the "Civil Rights President."
Lester Maddox ironically resisted the Civil Rights Act as an attack, rather than a defense, of civil liberties.
The Pickrick - The restaurant owned by Lester Maddox; rather than comply with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and serve African-American customers, Maddox chose to close the Pickrick.
Known for his eccentricities and for his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, Maddox became an unlikely ally of the Civil Rights Movement after his election as Georgia Governor in 1967.
Maynard Jackson - On January 7, 1974, Maynard Jackson was sworn in, by Judge Luther Alverson, as the first black mayor of Atlanta.
Shirley Franklin - One of the great legacies of Maynard Jackson is that he opened up possibilities for African-Americans and women; in 2002, Franklin became the first female mayor of Atlanta, and the first African-American woman to be elected mayor of ANY major southern city; she held the post of Mayor of Atlanta until 2010.
Andrew Young - The first black U.S. Congressman from Georgia since Reconstruction.
Andrew Young with Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King, Jr.


Herman Talmadge discusses the "Three Governor's Controversy":

Documentary on the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott:

Documentary on 'Brown v. Board of Education':

1993 Georgia Flag Debate (on Larry King Live) - Gov. Zell Miller vs. Charles Lunsford

Excellent documentary on the Albany Movement:

Historical footage of the Albany Movement:

The March on Washington (Part 1):

The March on Washington (Part 2):

Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers the "I Have a Dream" Speech on August 28, 1963:

President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act:

Lester Maddox explains the segregationist practices at the Pickrick:

Interview with Gov. Lester Maddox on the state of the country and his role in it:

Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Mountaintop" Speech:

Documentary on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Part 1):

Documentary on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Part 2):

Enrichment Activities (using the "Analyzing a Primary Source" worksheet, download and analyze one of the attached primary source documents below):